English has been spoken in Ireland since the sixteenth
century. By 1800, it was regularly used by around 50% of the
population, and is now the first language of 98-99% of the
1992). The remaining 1-2% speak Irish Gaelic. In the
Republic of Ireland, Irish Gaelic is the official language,
with English designated as the 'second official language'.
Population: c.3.8 million (Republic), c.1.6 million (Northern
Kallen, Jeffrey L & John M. Kirk (2012) SPICE-Ireland: A User's Guide. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona.
Kallen, Jeffrey L & John M. Kirk (2008) ICE-Ireland: A User's Guide. Belfast: Cló Ollscoil na Banríona.
Kallen, Jeffrey L & John M. Kirk (2007) 'ICE Ireland: Local Variations on Global Standards, in Beal, Joan C., Karen P. Corrigan, and Hermann L. Moisl (eds) Creating and Digitizing Language Corpora, vol. 1: Synchronic Databases. London: Palgrave Macmillan. pp.121-62.
Kirk, John M. & Jeffrey L. Kallen (2006) 'Irish Standard English: How Celticised? How Standardised?', in Tristram, Hildegard L.C. (ed.) The Celtic Englishes IV: The Interface between Englsh and the Celtic Languages. Potsdam: Potsdamer Universitätsverlag. pp.88-113.